专四写作课程讲义
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专四写作课程讲义

2020-07-24 16:55:50 投稿作者: 点击:

 专四写作复习指导 主讲老师:魏 巍

 一、整体介绍 1、复习规划 ⑴. 考试时间:4 月第 3 个周六上午 8:30-10:45 ⑵. 词汇过关:《专四词汇词根+联想记忆法》 ⑶. 精析真题(99 年至今),背诵范文 ⑷. 模拟练习:至少 4 次

 作文:10:00-10:35

 便条:10:35-10:45

 2、大纲解读及评分标准 ⑴. 文体:论说类、记叙描写类 ⑵. 评分标准:

 ① 思想内容:50% ② 组织架构:10%

 ③ 语法:20%

 ④ 用词:15%

 ⑤ 得体:5%

 优秀

  (15-13 分)

 良好

  (12-10 分)

 中等

  (9-7 分)

  不及格

 (6-4 分)

 低分

 (3-0 分)

 ⑶. 分数构成:基准分+印象分 ①. 基准分:思想内容+结构+语言

 思想内容:观点清楚,前后不矛盾,并有充分、恰当的例证说明自己的观点——论证充分,自圆其说 组织结构:细节安排有条理,叙述层次清楚,段落之间联系自然,句子连贯——逻辑严谨,3 段最好(1st 段:40-50 词; 2nd 段:120-130 词; 3rd 段:40-50 词) 语法:没有句子结构上的重大错误。拼写、标点、大小写等正确或有个别错误。引用原文适度,不超作者文章的 10%——正确无误,尽量高级,词汇替换 eg: Nowadays, the Internet has become part of people’s life, and millions of young people have made friends online.

 用词:用词(包括习惯用语)准确、恰当——准确无误,丰富多变 得体:语言得体,语气恰当,以理服人,有说服力——有理有据 ②.印象分 书写:清晰,字迹整齐漂亮(黑色水笔)

 表达:正确、正规、可读(不要缩写 eg: 3ks. 3Q. CU)

 标点:逗号,句号 修改:不修改,少修改(草稿纸、模板句式);

  严禁使用修正带、修改液或用胶带粘 题目:大小写——实词大写,虚词小写 eg: Is It Wise to Make Friends Online?

 二、结构 1、文章结构 第一段:给出观点; 第二段:论证观点(原因论证、举例论证、细节论证)

 第三段:总结观点

 2011 年 Recently government agencies in some big cities have been studying the possibility of putting a “pollution tax” on private cars. The amount of tax private car owners would have to pay would depend on the emission levels, i.e. engine or vehicle size. This has caused quite a stir among the public. Some regard it as an effective way to control the number of cars and reduce pollution in the city. But others don’t think so. What is your opinion? Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a composition of about 200 words on the following topic: Should Private Car Owners be Taxed for Pollution? You are to write in three parts. In the first part, state specifically what your opinion is.

  In the second part, provide one or two reasons to support your opinion.

 In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.

  2008 年 The Benefits for Volunteering You are to write in three parts.

  In the first part, state specifically what your opinion is. In the second part, support your opinion with appropriate details. In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.

  2010 年 Should College Students Hire Cleaners

 In the first part, state clearly what your view is. In the second part, support your view with appropriate reasons. In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.

 2、段落结构 第一段:给出观点 ⑴ 第一句:Background information:背景介绍

 ⑵ 第二句:General talk of the topic:引出主题 ⑶ 第三句:Thesis:我的观点

 2004 年 Will Phones Kill Letter Writing? In the contemporary society, young people tend to phone more often than write to each other. Therefore, some claim that phones will replace letter writing. Though phones are more convenient than letter writing, from my perspective, it will not put letter writing end.

 2003 年 The Importance of Keeping a Good Mood In the competitive society, quite a proportion of people live under great pressure from education,

 career and families. How can we live happy life? I believe it is vital that we keep a good mood under whatever circumstances.

 第二段:论证观点 ⑴ 第一部分(1 句话):引言

 There are numerous reasons that may account for my point and the following are the most conspicuous aspects.

 ⑵ 第二部分:论证(argument) ① 分论点一+论据

 (2-3 句) ② 分论点二+论据

 (2-3 句)

 * 万能理由(一):分论点提出角度 Live in A Big City or Small City? ①方便(convenient convenience) It is convenient. It is of convenience. It has found its convenience during the last years. It has found its seriousness during the last years.

 It has found its importance during the last years. 句型:sth.has found its„ during the last years. ②有效性(effective) ③环境好(environment-friendly)

 ④健康(health) ⑤沟通(communication) ⑥安全(secure security ) ⑦知识(knowledge)

 ⑶ 第三部分:小结 (1 句)— 可有可无

 第三段:总结观点 ⑴ 第一句:重申论点(Restate of the thesis)

 2002 年 The Best Way to Stay Healthy

 All in all, I believe the best way to keep fit is taking proper physical exercise.

 2003 年 The Importance of Keeping a Good Mood Thus, we need not only to build a strong body but also keep a good mood in order to face the pressures or challenges of modern society.

 ⑵ 第二句:建议措施/展望未来(suggestions/ future)

 2009 年 Will Tourism Bring Harm to the Environment?

 Therefore, some actions need to be taken to curb(限制) the development of tourism. Only in this way can we witness the ideal scene in which all the people can enjoy their life to the utmost.

  三、语言设计 1、词汇 ⑴ 准确性

 extensive knowledge

  fierce competition

 ⑵ 多样性(注意:尽量使用晚学到的单词)

 2000 年 The Importance of Extracurricular Activities 很多人认为课外活动很重要。

 Many people think that extracurricular activities is very important. *“许多,很多”many: a host of/

  an overwhelming number of/

  a great many/ a good many

 越来越多的人认为课外活动很重要。

 More and more people think that extracurricular activities is very important. “越来越多的人”more and more people: people in growing /increasing numbers *“越来越”More and more: increasing/ increasingly Competition is becoming increasingly fierce.

 *“认为”think: maintain/ claim/ believe/argue/ hold/ insist/ assume

 take/ hold the view/ opinion

 *“重要”important: significant/ vital/essential /crucial

 be of great importance

  play an important/essential role in… *“非常”very: extraordinarily/ extremely →A host of people hold that extracurricular activities is of extraordinary significance/ play an important role in our daily life. → People in increasing numbers hold that extracurricular activities is of extraordinary significance/ play an important role in our daily life.

 *“不同”different: distinct/ dissimilar/ various/ a diversity of *“得到”get: obtain / gain/ acquire/ attain/ have access to

 1999 年 Advertising on Television “广告的一个主要功能是可以帮助顾客找到有用的产品” One of the main functions of advertising is to help consumers to find useful products. *“帮助”help: assist sb in doing sth./ aid sb. in sth/aid in doing sth

 *“有用的”useful: conducive/ beneficial/ instrumental

 *“使用”use: make use of/ employ

  →One of the main functions of advertising is to assist consumers in finding beneficial products.

 *“漂亮”beautiful: pretty/ cute/ attractive/ charming/ elegant *“经常”often: frequently/ constantly

  2. 语法 ⑴ 倒装句 eg I will never give up. →Never will I give up. eg. I will never marry him. →Never will I marry him. ① 否定词置于句首 *not, no, little, few *never, hardly, seldom, rarely, scarcely… 否定词+情态动词/助动词 +主语+实意动词 eg. I never remain suspicious of that … →Never do I remain suspicious of that„

 ② Only+状语置于句首 “只有按照这样的方式我们才能„„” Only in this way can we do„„ Only+状语+情态动词/助动词+主语+实意动词 eg. We can settle the problem of urban air contamination only in this way. →Only in this way can we settle the problem of urban air contamination.

 (2)虚拟语气 “是该做„„的时候啦” It is high time that sb. did sth(过去式). eg. It is high time we did something to change the situation. It is high time that we took the environmental protection into consideration

 It is high time that parents raised their consciousness of protecting their children against the harm of the Internet.

 (3)强调句 *It is … that … eg. I love you. →It is I who love you. →It is you who I love. →I do love you.

 *sb./ sth. do/did/does+动词原形+谓语动词(原形) eg. The problem becomes serious. →The problem does become serious. →The problem does find its seriousness. eg. The problem becomes popular.

 →The problem does become popular. →The problem does find its popularity.

 ⑷ 插入语

 ① 位置:主谓之间 ② 内容 *主语+rather than anyone/anything else eg. I love you. →I, rather than anyone else, love you. in conclusion/summary/brief

 *undoubtedly eg. Internet is becoming more and more important. →Internet, undoubtedly, is becoming increasingly important.

 *in conclusion/summary/brief eg. In conclusion, Public transportation should be given a strategic position in the city’s sustainable development. Public transportation, in conclusion, should be given a strategic position in the city’s sustainable development.

 3、句子

 如何写长句?

 先写主干,后加修饰。

 ⑴

 定语修饰(修饰名词)

 ① adj.修饰 adj. + n.

 ② n. 修饰 people of china sense of safety ③ 定语从句 人+who, whom, whose

 物+that, which

  时间+when

 地点+where

 eg. To write a letter, you just need a piece of paper, a pen, an envelop and a stamp, which all together costs no more than 1 Yuan.

 ⑵ 状语从句 when, before, after (时间状语从句)

 where (地点状语从句) because=in that, since, as, for(原因状语从句)

 if, unless(条件状语从句)

 although, though, while,even if… (让步状语从句)

 范文分析 2007 年

 Nowadays, the internet has become part of people ’s life, and millions of young people have made friends online. Write on ANSWER SHEET TWO a composition of about 200 words on the following topic: Is It Wise to Make Friends Online?

 范文一(5 分)

 I think it is wise to make friends online . First , Now job’s pressure more and more . Everyone cann’t better talk face to face. Second, Friends online may speak everything of them. Third, Friends online may help something of them and solvle some problem. The forth, Friends online may gain more knowledge and information. All in all, make friends online is wise in the society. Make friends online cann’t change a 潮流。

 Everyone may enjoy Everyone with his friends online!

 范文一(5 分)

 1、内容:论据不清,不知所云 2、结构:段落随意划分,不合规范 3、语言:通篇中式英语,语法错误极多。单词量有限,字数严重不足。

  范文二(7 分)

 People would like to make the best of Internet to broaden their minds, they can get large information, they can play interesting games, even they can make friends online. While a question has been arisen: “is It wise to make friends online?” The Internet is not reality, you can not trust a person through the Internet. Now I would not like to talk about the advantages of the Internet, while the disadvantages you can not deny is existing. Many people make the most of it to do bad things, such as trick you that he is need of money eagerly and wise you would help him as a friend, or character as your friend to inform your family that you are in danger and need money to save you etc. All the things can be seen on the newspapers, magazines, etc. So it is unwise to trust a so called online friend. I can Jump to the conclude that it is unwise to make friends online, because it is not reality, also we can not trust others without knowing the person well. So let’s do utmost to make the base use of the advantages of the Internet. cherish the friends around us!

  范文二 (7 分)

 1. 内容:首段结尾与二段开头,没有表明观点。读者一头雾水。

 2. 结构:几乎没有关联词,粗浅分了三个部分。

 3. 语言:生涩, 第二段表达不清,错误百出。

 范文三(9 分)

 There is a tendency we can’t deny that most of us have access to Internet. Subsequently, making friends online has become a common thing. Some may argue that making friends online isn’t a good choice, however, personally, I hold the idea that it is wiser to make friends online.

 On one hand, it’s a kind of company. When we live in our apartment, we seldom communicate to the neighbors, esp. that our family members are outside; the sense of feel lonely overcomes us. Therefore, in order to get rid of this, we need to find someone to talk with. Then making friends online is a good way to solve this problem. Meanwhile, we can not only gain

 friendship, but also exchange our minds. In this way, we obtain a sense of satisfaction from talking with a stranger who will tend to say beautiful words toward us.

 On the other hand, making friends online help us enrich our sight. We make friends, coming from different areas, accordingly, we obtain a lot of information that we can’t get from our limited knowledge. Sometimes, friends online encourage us to read helpful books where will be able to learn more. All in all, from my point of view, making friends is helpful for enriching our knowledge and helping us encourage with others, hence, it’s advisable to make friends online as long as we use it properly. 范文三(9 分)

 1. 内容:观点比较明确,但论据不足,没有力度,表达苍白。

 2. 结构:比较清晰,关联词比较合理,整体字数偏多。

 3. 语言:比较生涩,错误较多,多句表达不清, 但能理解

  范文四(12 分)

 Nowadays, it has been a fashion to make friends online, and more and more teenagers, college students and even many adults will spend a lot of time chatting with people on the Internet. But I don’t think it is wise to make friends online.

 Firstly, most of people will not reveal their real identity on the Internet, which will not enable you to make true friends. Just imagine a young lady you are talking with may be an old man, and I’m sure we will feel very bad when we are exposed to the truth. Besides, the friends online can bring bad effect to people, especially for teenagers. The unhealthy stuff will both physically and psychologically influence young people and, in a certain degree, can lead an unproper way to their whole life.

  And last, making friends online can do bad to the relationship between you and you family and friends in real life. Being addicted to the Internet makes you ignore the reality. You will be angry about your parents’ persuading and after a long time, maybe you will find you have lost the ability of how to communicate with others properly.

 In a word, it is not wise to make friends online. I hope everyone can focus on the reality instead of wasting too much time making friends on the Internet.

 范文四(12 分)

 内容:观点明确。

 结构:清晰。关联词准确,各部分字数比例合理。

 语言:比较流畅,有一定说服力,错误占 10%。细节问题,不影响理解。整句错误较少。

 范文五 (14 分)

  With the Internet becoming an indispensable part of modern people’s life, making friends online enjoys its great popularity, especially among young people. However, is it wise to make friends online, as many parents and teachers are worrying about? As far as I am concerned, I strongly oppose being addicted to making friends online. Firstly, too much attention to online friends distracts your concerns to the true friends and families in the real world. If we look around, we often find a lot of young people staying online and chatting with online friends all day long. By the same time the communication between them and the friends around them are becoming less and less. Therefore, they feel lonelier in real life

 and spend more time on Internet. Besides, online friends are often disguised. A large number of cases have proved that many criminals make use of Internet to cheat of money or love. Even if they are not cheaters, they tend to be totally different persons when you get in actual contact with them. There’s always a gap between the real world and the imaginary one. Nevertheless , it’s unwise to make friends online. Those who are indulging in Internet should cast your eyesight to the friendship and kinship in the real life. What you should do is to seek solution, but not to escape.

 *pay attention to; attach importance to 范文五(14 分)

 1、内容 :观点明确,论据充分,表达到位。首尾呼应,说服力很强,有实证、有例证。

 2、结构:结构清楚,关联词准确,各部分比例合理。

 3、语言:自然流畅,语气恰当,用词准确,几乎没有错误

  四、 第一段 写作 文章类型 2011:should private Car Owners be Taxed for Pollution

 2009:Will Tourism Bring Harm to the Environment? ——正反对比利弊类

 2006:some students think that saving money is a good habit while the rest believe that using tomorrow’s money is better. What do you think? ——正反对比选择类

 2008: The benefits for volunteering 2003: The importance of keeping a good mood ——给定观点类

 2005: My idea of a University Arts Festival 2002: The best way to stay healthy ——自由发挥类

 第一类:正反对比利弊类 2011:Should Private Car Owners be Taxed for Pollution 2010: Should College Students Hire Cleaners? 2009: Will Tourism Bring Harm to the Environment? 2007: Is It Wise to Make Friends Online?

 1999: A Major Advantage/Disadvantage of Advertising on Television

  第一段 第一句:Background information

 背景介绍 领域/社会在某个时间发生了巨大的变化,但与此同时,关于…主题…却引起了一场热烈的

 讨论。

 The society has changes. The society has had amazing changes during the last years. The last years have witnessed amazing/ remarkable/ incredible changes in the society. A debate was triggered as to„

 A debate/ A discussion/ An argument/ A contentious issue was triggered/ stimulated/ inspired as to„

 eg. The last years have witnessed amazing changes in the society, while in the meantime, a contentious issue was triggered as to whether private car owners should be taxed for pollution/ whether college students should hire cleaners/ whether tourism brings harm to the environment.

  第二句:General talk of the topic

 引出主题 一些人认为…对我们有好处,而另一些人持相反观点。

 Some indicate „can benefit us, while others take the opposite stand. 认为:maintain/ claim/ believe/

  argue/ hold/ insist/ assume

  take/ hold the view/ opinion

  第三句:Thesis

 我的观点 我同意前者/后者。

 Personally, I prefer the former/ latter. I, personally, prefer the former/ latter.

 模板句型:The last year has witnessed amazing changes in society/领域,while in the meantime, a contentious issue was triggered as to 主题. Some indicate „can benefit us, while others take the opposite stand. I, personally, prefer the former/ latter. 2011 年:Should Private Car Owners be Taxed for Pollution? The last year has witnessed amazing changes in society,while in the meantime, a contentious issue was triggered as to whether private car owners should be taxed for pollution. Some indicate tax on cars can benefit us, while others take the opposite stand. I, personally, prefer the former.

 第二类:正反对比选择类 2006:Some students think that saving money is a good habit while the rest believe that using tomorrow’s money is better. What do you think?

 2004:

 Will phones kill letter writing.

 第一段 第一句:背景介绍 领域/社会在某个时间发生了巨大的变化,但与此同时,关于…主题…却引起了一场热烈的讨论。

 The last year has witnessed amazing changes in society/领域,while in the meantime, a contentious issue was triggered as to 主题.

 第二句:引出主题(两方观点)

 一些人认为 A 是最好的选择,然而其他人持相反的观点。

 Some take A as the premier choice, while others hold the opposite opinion..

 第三句:我的观点 我同意前者/后者。

 Personally, I prefer the former/ latter. I, personally, prefer the former/ latter

 模板句型:The last year has witnessed amazing changes in society/ 领域,while in the meantime, a contentious issue was triggered as to 主题. Some take A as the premier choice, while others hold the opposite opinion. I, personally, prefer the former/ latter. 2006 年:Some students think that saving money is a good habit while the rest believe that using tomorrow’s money is better. What do you think?

  The last year has witnessed amazing changes in society,while in the meantime, a contentious issue was triggered as to whether students should save money or use tomorrow’s money. Some take saving/using tomorrow’s money as the premier choice, while others hold the opposite opinion. I, personally, prefer the former.

 第三类:给定观点类 2008:

 The benefits for volunteering 2003:

 The importance of keeping a good mood 2001:

 Travel broadens the mind 2000:

 The importance of extracurricular activities

 第一段 第一句:背景介绍 …主题… 近年在学生/ 人们中间非常普及流行。

 …主题… has found its popularity among students/ people during the last years.

  第二句:

 引出主题 我非常同意你的观点。

 As for me, I can not agree more with it. (比较级的否定表示最高级)

 写作中的比较级:

 1.“说比做容易” “Easier said than done” more A than B A rather than B prefer A to B 2. 无比较级 ⑴. 极限形容词 perfect ⑵. “A 比 B 年长” A is senior to B.

 B is junior to A ⑶. “A 比 B 好” A is superior to B. B is inferior to A.

  eg. Phones are superior to letter.

 3. 比较级的否定式=最高级 I can not agree more with it. I can not thank you more.

 第三句:

 我的观点(重申观点)

 …主题…毫无疑问已经成为我们的生活/成功的必不可少部分/因素。

 …主题…should undoubtedly be an indispensible part/ factor of our life/ success. *“重要”important: significant/ vital/ essential/ crucial eg. 2003:

 The importance of keeping a good mood Keeping a good mood should undoubtedly be an indispensible part/ factor of our life/ success.

 模板句型:…主题…has found its popularity among students/ people during the last years. As for me, I can not agree more with it. …主题…should undoubtedly be an indispensible part/ factor of our life/ success. 2001 年:Travel broadens the mind Travelling has found its popularity among students during the last years. As for me, I can not agree more with it. It should undoubtedly be an indispensible part/ factor of our life. 2000 年:The importance of extracurricular activities Extracurricular activity has found its popularity among students during the last years. As for me, I can not agree more with it. It should undoubtedly be an indispensible part/ factor of our life. 2008 年:The benefits for volunteering Volunteering has found its popularity among students during the last years. As for me, I can not agree more with it. It should undoubtedly be an indispensible part/ factor of our life.

 第四类:自由发挥类 2005:

 My idea of a University Arts Festival 2002:

 The best way to stay healthy

 第一段 第一句:背景介绍 …主题… 近期在校园/社会中非常引人关注。

 Noting in the campus/ society has been more striking than the topic of …主题… (比较级的否定表最高级)

 第二句:

 引出主题 一些人习以为常的认为…, 但对我来说我不赞成这种观点。

 Some take it for granted that …一般人的观点…, but to be frank, I can not agree with it.

 第三句:

 我的观点

 我认为… I never remain suspicious of the view that … Never do I remain suspicious of the view that…

 模板句型:Noting in the campus/ society has been more striking than the topic of …主题…Some take it for granted that …一般人的观点…, but to be frank, I can not agree with it. Never do I remain suspicious of the view that… 2005 年:My idea of a University Arts Festival Nothing in the campus has been more striking than the topic of arts festival. Some take it for granted that arts festival is just dancing and singing performance, but to be frank, I can not agree with it. Never do I remain suspicious of the view that the arts festival is supposed to the feast of arts.

  五 、 第二 段 写作 1. 论证(argument) ① 分论点一+论据

 (2-3 句) ② 分论点二+论据

 (2-3 句)

 2. 论证模式 一、原因论证 引言:

 找到这个现象/ 问题的原因并不是一件容易的事。

 Finding the reasons for this problem/ phenomenon is difficult. It is difficult to find the reasons for this problem/ phenomenon.(动宾结构作主语用形式主语句)

 It is no easy task to identify the reasons for this problem/ phenomenon. 1. 如何写句子 主谓宾。

 介词结构作主语,用到装。

 当动宾结构作主语时,用形式主语句。

 2. 形式主语句(万能拓展)

 It is common knowledge that…

 It is as clear as writing on the wall that… It is beyond the shadow of doubt that… It is a fact that… eg. Internet, undoubtedly, is becoming increasingly important. Along with the development of the society, it is a fact that Internet, undoubtedly, is becoming more and more important. 3. 连词的使用 首先:first and foremost ; first of all; to begin with 其次:What is more, in addition, furthermore, additionally 最后:Last but not least Needless to say … Moreover … Most importantly …

 4. 表示因果的词汇 because, because of, since, now that, owing to, due to

 cause, result in, lead to, therefore, thus, consequently, as a result, as a consequence The reasons why...can be traced to... The causes for...are as follows.  万能理由(二)

 1. 事件产生的原因 (1) 危害类事情产生的原因 ⅰ. 人与经济 供:supply

 求:demand 供大于求

  Sth. is in a short of demand. 供小于求

  Sth. is in a short of supply.

  ⅱ. 人与科技 科技:

 double-edged sword

 双刃剑 science and technology is a double-edged sword. ⅲ. 人与健康 疾病:disease ⅳ. 人与其它 ……是人与社会不和谐关系在某领域里面的一个小的缩影。

 It is a miniature of the disharmonious relation between the society and human being in the specific aspect of …领域… ……是某领域不断调整的过程中必然会出现的问题。

 It is not without its problem under the constant adjustment of …领域… (2) 流行类事件产生的原因 生活节奏加快:quickening rhythm of modern life 全球化的趋势:the trend of globalization 2.

 好处/ 坏处 (1) 好处 增长知识:enrich one’s knowledge 开阔视野:enlarge/broaden one’s horizon 我们不仅能够收到教育,而且能够得到快乐。

 Sth. educate(s) as well as entertain(s) us

 (2) 坏处(几乎没有)

 “过犹不及/ 欲速则不达” “Haste makes waste” eg. “Haste makes waste”. Often do we hear such proverb. That is to say spending too much time online to make friends will be harmful to us.

 二、举例论证 引言:

 1. 我认为我们人类历史上充满着许多与之相关的例子,下面这个最具说服力。

 Never do I remain suspicious of the view that our human history has been fraught with an overwhelming majority of corresponding examples, with the following being the

 foremost.

 2. 在我所经历的所有事情当中,下面这个印象最深。

 Among all the touching facts that I have ever experienced, the most impressive one is as follows.

 3. 除了下面的例子,我想不到更好的了。

 I can think of no better example other than the following one.

 eg. 2009 Will Tourism Bring Harm to the Environment? 例子一:黄金周的时候,众多游客蜂拥而至去爬黄山、在天安门广场徘徊,活在长城脚下拍照。所有这些游客都对环境造成了很大的压力; I can think of no better example other than the following one. During Golden Week, a host of tourists are climbing up Yellow Mountain, wandering around Tiananmen Square and taking their picture in front if the Great Wall.

 例子二:他们造成了要有更多财力被用在这些景点,他们造成了堆积如山的垃圾,在珍贵的植被上践踏,把小动物吓跑。

 All these people put a large strain on the environment; they require more resources to be directed to the area, produce mountains of garbage, trample on precious plants and scare away animals.

 三、细节论证 1. 数据统计法 “根据统计,希望工程收到捐款上亿,它能够让更多的学生上学” According to a statistics, the money collected from Hope Project has reached as much as one hundred million, which can help many students finish their education. hundred thousand

 ten thousand twenty thousand ten thousand million

 ten million

 hundred million billion

 模板句型:“According to a statistics, the money/number of 主题 has reached as much as 数字,非限定性定从。” eg. 2009 Will Tourism Bring Harm to the Environment? According to a statistics, the number of visitors has reached as much as ten million, which bring huge profits to the GDP. * 修辞:

 ⑴. 明喻(simile)

 暗喻(metaphor)

 busy bee deep ocean

 pure angel black coffee

 as busy as bee as deep as ocean

 as pure as angel as black as coffee

 The symbolic meaning is as deep as ocean.

 ⑵. 提喻 grey-hair

  “老人” support the grey-hair

  “赡养老人”

 ⑶. 并列修辞 I came, I saw, I conquered. government of the people, for the people, by the people 民有,

 民享,

 民治 _______ and / or ________ 用 and / or 连接两个词性相同,词义相近的单词。

 a small town→a small and peaceful town a responsible teacher→a responsible and warm-hearted teacher University education can enrich our social experience. →University education and instruction can enrich our social experience. When you see someone in difficulty, don’t hesitate to give your love to him. →When you see someone in difficulty or in trouble, don’t hesitate to give your love and support to him. eg. If we look around, we often find a lot of young people staying online all day long. →If we look around, we often find a lot of young people staying online and chatting with online friends all day long. (4). 矛盾修辞 tearful smile radiant smile “根据最近的调查,„的数量增加/减少了„” “According to one of the latest surveys, the number of ___has

  increased/ decreased by __% from

 时间 to 时间.” eg. “According to one of the latest surveys, the number of tourists who travel around the country has increased by nearly 60% from 2000 to 2010.

 2. 名言谚语 引言:

 As the saying goes/ Just as the proverb says,

 As a remote oriental philosopher has said,

 常用谚语 Every coin has two sides. Every sword has two edges. Health is better than wealth. Man proposes, God disposes. An apple a day keeps a doctor away.

  四、其它角度论证

 practice

 perfect

  will

  way

 love

  hope/happy * A 导致 B; A lead to/ contribute to B * B 来源于 A; B come from/ derive from/ result from A * 介词的使用 from: 来源、拒绝(远离)

  keep/ prevent/ persuade

 on: 在…之上;开始,继续 to: 目的 in order to

 in: 在…之内

 at: 在…点上 * A 增加,B 也增加; The more… the more … eg: The more you practice, the better you will be. * 非 A 导致非 B。

 you will never … without … eg: You will never be perfect without practice.

 六、 第三段:结论段(conclusion )

 一、重申论点(Restate of the thesis )

 注意同意替换 Never do I remain suspicious of that…(第一段) All in all, I believe/ argue/ hold the view that… (第三段)

 二、建议措施 / 展望未来(suggestions/ future )

 1. 展望未来(future and suggestions)

 我认为…在我们生活中发挥着重要的作用,而且我们很难决定这个东西是好是坏,但是有一点是肯定的,…改变了我们的娱乐、休闲和生活方式。

 Never do I remain suspicious of the view that „ has played a vital role in our daily life, and it is hard for us to determine whether it is blessing or curse. It has undoubtedly changed our ways of entertainment, leisure and lives.

 2. 建议措施 (suggestions/ solutions) “该到了…的时候了” It is high time that we urged an end to this problem. “政府应该制定相应的法律法规” As for the government, it should set down corresponding laws and regulations. “大众的意识应该是我们解决问题的第二步” The awareness of the public is supposed to be the second step toward the solution. 模板句型:It is high time that we urged an end to this problem. As for the government, it should set down corresponding laws and regulations. The awareness of the public is supposed to be the second step toward the solution.

 七、总结 1. 分清题目类型 2. 列出提纲模板句 3. 填充内容 4. 检查

 八、真题举例 2004 年:Will Phones Kill Letter Writing?——正反观点利弊类

 第一段:

 第一句:The last years have witnessed amazing changes in the society, while in the meantime, a contentious issue was triggered as to whether phones will replace letter writing/ whether letter writing will be killed by phones. 第二句:Some indicate that phones are superior to letters, while others take the opposite stand. 第三句:I, personally, preferred the former view.

 第二段:

 第一句:It is no easy task to identify the reasons. 第二句:Needless to say,they have found their convenience during the last years.+例子 第三句:Among all the touching facts that I have ever experienced, the most impressive one is as follows. +例子 第四句:Moreover, the immediate factor that has contributed to the prevalence of phones is supposed to be the quickening rhythm of modern life.

  第三段:

 第一句:Never do I remain suspicious of the view that phones have played a vital role in our daily life and it is hard to determine whether they are blessing or curse. 第二句:It has undoubtedly changed our ways of entertainment, leisure and lives.

 九、便条写作

 (一)、评分标准 最新修订的《高校英语专业四级考试大纲》要求考生按照所给的提示写一则:

  (1) 50—60 字左右的便条、通知、请柬等。

  (2) 要求格式正确、语言得体。

 (3) 考试时间为 10 分钟

  (4) 满分为 10 分。

 1、格式(2 分) (1)日期 date 要求:

 右上角  January  Jan.  February  Feb.  March  Mar.  April  Apr.  May  June  Jun.  July  Jul.  August  Aug.  September  Sept.  October  Oct.  November  Nov.  December  Dec. eg: Jan. 1, 2011 (2)称呼 salutation:

 要求:在日期下一行左侧 Dear Jack,

 (推荐) Dear Jack:

 Jack,

 Jack: Dear + 姓

 例:Dear Mr. Wang,

 Dear + 名

 例:Dear Michael,

 Dear + 头衔

 例:Dear president, Dear+头衔+名 例:Dear Professor Nickerson,

 Mr.

 用于男性 Mrs. 用于已婚女性 Miss 用于未婚女性 Ms

 用于不知婚姻状态 如果题目中没有告知确定的收信人

 Dear Sir / Madam, To whom it may concern,

 (3)信的正文 body of letter:

 缩进式——每段开头空四个字母 齐头式——每段开头都顶格写,但是段与段之间必须空行。

 (4)礼貌的结尾 complimentary :

 要求:右下方

 Truly yours,

  Yours truly,

  ★ Yours sincerely,

  Sincerely yours,

 通用

  Yours respectfully,

  Respectfully yours,

 上级或长者 (5)签名 signature:

 要求:右下方 Wei Wei Jack

  署名:没有特定要求。但不能用自己的真名。建议用最常见的英文名字如 J...

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