几个小技巧教你拆分简化雅思长难句
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几个小技巧教你拆分简化雅思长难句

2020-07-28 07:24:27 投稿作者: 点击:

 几个小技巧教你拆分简化雅思长难句

 雅思语法在雅思考试中的重点不是做对单选题,而是为了读懂长难句,写出高级句型,说出正确句子。很多同学都在为雅思的长难句所犯愁,今天小编就来带大家一起拆解长难句中的平行句。

 几个小技巧教你拆分简化雅思长难句 平行并列句是指一个句子中会有两个成分或以上并列句。英语句子最常用的方法是通过使用一些关联词,如 and、or、but 等,或标点符号如:分号,逗号,破折号等,若干个在语义上有联系或相互照应的单词、词组或句子连在一起组成一种并列或平行结构的长句,以表达一个复杂的多层次含义。

 我们做题的技巧是先找出谓语,然后确定主语,再通过关联词(and,but 等)从后向前找出并列的核心单词。将句子从并列连词处断开,将并列句变成两个或若干个相对短的句子,然后再用处理简单句的方法——抓句子主干,来依次处理每个相对短的句子。比如下列两句:

 Everyone should know where the nearest fire alarm box is located and where exits, fire escapes,and fire doors are. I wanted her to know that my heart was with her, and that I thought England owed her a great debt and was going to miss her. 解析如下:

 1. Everyone should know where the nearest fire alarm box is located and where exits, fire escapes, and fire doors are. 结构:本句有三个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为 should know,其余两个都是由 where 引导的并列宾语从句。

 拆分:

 1) Everyone should know 2) Where the nearest fire alarm box is located 3) Where exits, fire escapes, and fire doors are 翻译:

 每个人都应该知道最近的火灾报警箱的位置,以及安全出口、安全梯及防火门位于何处。

 2. I wanted her to know that my heart was with her, and that I thought England owed her a great debt and was going to miss her. 结构:本句有 5 个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为 wanted。was 和 thought分别属于两个由 that 引导的并列宾语从句。而 owed 和 was going 为两个并列的谓语动词,共同主语为 England。England 这句话前面为了避免重复而省略了宾语从句的引导词 that,实际上是 thought 的宾语从句。

 拆分:

 I wanted her to know That my heart was withher That I thought (That) England owed her agreat debt and was going to miss her. 翻译:我想让她知道我的心陪伴着她,而且我认为英国欠了她一大笔债,很快就会想念她。

 小结:1 和 2 两句都是从句并列,找到连词,再找从句中的主干成分,便可以理解句意。

 除了从句并列,还有不定式引导的并列句,比如下面两个句子:

 The way space is used to enable the individual to achieve privacy, to build homes or to design cities is culturally influenced. It seems simple enoughto distinguish between the organism and the surrounding environment and to separate forces acting on an organism into those that are internal and biological and those that are external and environmental. 解析如下:

 3. The way space is used to enable the individual to achieve privacy, to build homes or to design citiesis culturally influenced.

 结构:本句中有两个谓语动词,主句谓语为 is culturally influenced, 定语从句谓语为 isused to. 主语 the way 有一个很长的定语从句修饰,定语从句中有三个并列的不定式短语作动词“isused”的目的状语即 to achieve privacy, to build homes,和 to design cities. 拆分:

 The way is culturally influenced. space is used to enable the individual to achieve privacy to build homes to design cities 翻译:怎样利用空间实现个人隐私,修建住宅及规划城市都受到文化上的影响。

 4. It seems simple enough to distinguish between the organism and the surrounding environment and to separate forces acting on an organism into those that are internal and biological and those that are external and environmental. 结构:本句话关键是通过 and 抓住并列的成分,句子的主干是 It seems simple enough to distinguish „andto separate„,其中,理解的难点在separate后面的部分。Separate的宾语forces后面被“acting on an organism”这个现在分词短语限定,into 后面两个 those 告诉我们 forces 被分成哪些部分了。

 拆分:

 It seems simple enough to distinguish between the organism and the surrounding environment and to separate forces(acting on an organism) into those that are internal and biological and those that are external and environmental.

 翻译:区分有机体和周围环境似乎很简单;把作用于有机体的力量分为内部生物的力量和外部环境的力量似乎也很简单。

 小结:从上两句可以看出,并列的不定式后面还包含定语从句或名词性从句,这增加了找出并列成分的难度,但记得,第一步还是找出连词,然后分析每个从句的主干结构,从而透彻地理解整个句子。

 除了不定式可以引导并列结构,从句也可以,而且难度更大,因为从句会误导考生找不到主句的主干,请看下句:

 Children in low-income families and poor communities are less likely to take organized youth sports for granted because they often lack the resources needed to pay for participation fees, equipment, and transportation to practices and games and their communities do not have resources to build and maintain sports fields and facilities. 解析:

 5. Children in low-income families and poor communities are less likely to take organized youth sports for granted because they often lack the resources needed to pay for participation fees, equipment,and transportation to practices and games and their communities do not have resources to build and maintain sports fields and facilities . 结构:本句中有三个谓语动词,are less likely to do 为主句谓语 ,lack和 do not have 为并列原因状语从句的谓语,主语分为 they 和 their communities. 拆分:

 Children (in low-income families and poor communities )are less likely (totake organized youth sports for granted) take„forgranted„把„认为是理所应当 because they often lack the resources (needed)(to pay for participation fees, equipment, and transportation to practices andgames)

 and (because)their communities do not have resources (to build and maintain sports fields and facilities ). 翻译:来自低收入家庭和贫穷社区的孩子就很少将社区运动视作理所应当,因为他们经常缺少必须的金钱来支付门票、设备和来回车费,而且他们的社区也没有能力来建设和维持运动场和运动设备。

 小结:

 这句话只有虽然有三个谓语,但主句只有一个,所以第一个才是真正的谓语,其他两个是原因状语从句引导的并列从句的谓语,所以理解这句话需要找出主句的谓语。

 总结:长难句中的平行结构可以用不同的方式构成,可能并列成分内部仍然有并列成分,但是最重要的还是先找到主干结构,再分析并列句的结构,最后整合起来,一点点解剖整个句子的意思。

 雅思考试阅读模拟练习及答案 Next Year Marks the EU’s 50th Anniversary of the Treaty A. After a period of introversion and stunned self-disbelief, continental European governments will recover their enthusiasm for pan-European institution-building in 2007. Whether the European public will welcome a return to what voters in two countries had rejected so short a time before is another matter. B. There are several reasons for Europe’s recovering self-confidence. For years European economies had been lagging dismally behind America (to say nothing of Asia), but in 2006 the large continental economies had one of their best years for a decade, briefly outstripping America in terms of growth. Since politics often reacts to economic change with a lag, 2006’s improvement in economic growth will have its impact in 2007, though the recovery may be ebbing by then. C.

 The coming year also marks a particular point in a political cycle so regular that it almost seems to amount to a natural law. Every four or five years, European countries take a large stride towards further integration by signing a new treaty: the Maastricht treaty in 1992, the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997, the Treaty of Nice in 2001. And in 2005 they were supposed to ratify a European constitution, laying the ground for yet more integration—until the calm rhythm was rudely shattered by French and Dutch voters. But the political impetus to sign something every four or five years has only been interrupted, not immobilised, by this setback. D. In 2007 the European Union marks the 50th anniversary of another treaty—the Treaty of Rome, its founding charter. Government leaders have already agreed to celebrate it ceremoniously, restating their commitment to “ever closer union” and the basic ideals of European unity. By itself, and in normal circumstances, the EU’s 50th-birthday greeting to itself would be fairly meaningless, a routine expression of European good fellowship. But it does not take a Machiavelli to spot that once governments have signed the declaration (and it seems unlikely anyone would be so uncollegiate as to veto it) they will already be halfway towards committing themselves to a new treaty. All that will be necessary will be to incorporate the 50th-anniversary declaration into a new treaty containing a number of institutional and other reforms extracted from the failed attempt at constitution-building and—hey presto—a new quasi-constitution will be ready. E. According to the German government—which holds the EU’s agenda-setting presidency during the first half of 2007—there will be a new draft of a slimmed-down constitution ready by the middle of the year,

 perhaps to put to voters, perhaps not. There would then be a couple of years in which it will be discussed, approved by parliaments and, perhaps, put to voters if that is deemed unavoidable. Then, according to bureaucratic planners in Brussels and Berlin, blithely ignoring the possibility of public rejection, the whole thing will be signed, sealed and a new constitution delivered in 2009-10. Europe will be nicely back on schedule. Its four-to-five-year cycle of integration will have missed only one beat. F. The resurrection of the European constitution will be made more likely in 2007 because of what is happening in national capitals. The European Union is not really an autonomous organisation. If it functions, it is because the leaders of the big continental countries want it to, reckoning that an active European policy will help them get done what they want to do in their own countries. G. That did not happen in 2005-06. Defensive, cynical and self-destructive, the leaders of the three largest euro-zone countries—France, Italy and Germany—were stumbling towards their unlamented ends. They saw no reason to pursue any sort of European policy and the EU, as a result, barely functioned. But by the middle of 2007 all three will have gone, and this fact alone will transform the European political landscape. H. The upshot is that the politics of the three large continental countries, bureaucratic momentum and the economics of recovery will all be aligned to give a push towards integration in 2007. That does not mean the momentum will be irresistible or even popular. The British government,

 for one, will almost certainly not want to go with the flow, beginning yet another chapter in the long history of confrontation between Britain and the rest of Europe. More important, the voters will want a say. They rejected the constitution in 2005. It would be foolish to assume they will accept it after 2007 just as a result of an artful bit of tinkering. Questions 1-6 Do the following statemets reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 1? Write your answer in Boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet. TRUE if the statemenht reflets the claims of the writer FALSE if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is possbile to say what the writer thinks about this 1.After years’ introspection and mistrust, continental European governments will resurrect their enthusiasm for more integration in 2007. 2. The European consitution was officially approved in 2005 in spite of the oppositon of French and Dutch voters. 3. The Treaty of Rome , which is considered as the fundamental charter of the European Union, was signed in 1957. 4.It is very unlikely that European countries will sign the declaration at the 50th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome. 5.French government will hold the EU’s presidency and lay down the agenda during the first half of 2008. 6.For a long time in hisotry, there has been confrontation between Britain and the rest of European countries. Questions 7-10 Complet the following sentencces. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from Reading Passage 1 for each answer. Write your answer in Boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.

 7. Every four or five years, European countries tend to make a rapid progress towards ___________________by signing a new treaty. 8. The European constitution is supposed to ______________________for yet more integration of European Union member countries. 9. The bureaucratic planners in Brussels and Berlin rashly ignore the possibility of __________________and think the new consitution will be delivered in 2009-10. 10. The politics of the three large continental countries, __________________ and the economic recovery will join together to urge the integration in 2007. 11. Which of the following statemnts is true of Euopean economic development. A. The economy of Europe developed much faster than that of Asia before 2006. B. The growth of European economy was slightly slower than that of America in 2006. C. The development of European economy are likely to slow down by 2007. D. The recovery of European economy may be considerably accelerated by 2007. 12. The word “immobilised” in the last line of Section C means ___________. A. stopped completely. B. pushed strongly. C. motivated wholely. D. impeded totally. 13. Which of the following statements about the treaties in European countries is NOT TRUE. A. The Maastricht Treaty was signed in 1992.

 B. The Treaty of Amsterdan was signed in 1997. C. The Treaty of Nice was signed in 2001. D. The Treaty of Rome was signed in 2007. 14. The European constitution failed to be ratified in 2005--2006, because A. The leaders of France, Italy and Germany were defensive, cynical and self-destructuve.. B. The voters in two countries of the Union --France and Holland rejected the constitution. C. The leaders of the EU thought that it was unneccessary to pursue any European policy. D. France, Italy and Germany are the three largest and most influential euro-zone countries. 雅思考试阅读模拟练习及答案 Part II Notes to the Reading Passage 1. pan-Enropean pan-: 前缀:全,总,泛 pan-African 全/泛非洲的(运动) pan-Enropean 全/泛欧的(机构建设) 2. outstrip 超越,胜过,超过,优于 Material development outstripped human development”“物质的发展超过了人类的进步” 3. ebb 回落跌落;衰退或消减 The tide is on the ebb.正在退潮。

 4. Machiavelli

 马基雅维利,尼克尔 1469-1527 意大利政治理论家,他的著作君主论(1513年)阐述了一个意志坚定的统治者不顾道德观念的约束如何获得并保持其权力。

 文章中意为“任何一个人都可以看到,显而易见。。。”。

 5. hey presto 突然地;立即(魔术师用语)您看,变! 6. upshot 结果;结局 Part III Keys to the Questions 1-14 1. TRUE Explanation See the first sentence in Section A “Aftera period of introversion and stunned self-disbelief, continental European governments will recover their enthusiasm for pan-European institution-building in 2007”. 2. FALSE Explanation See the third sentence in Section C “And in 2005 they were supposed to ratify a European constitution, laying the ground for yet more integration—until the calm rhythm was rudely shattered by French and Dutch voters.”. 3. TRUE Explanation See the first sentence in the Section D “In 2007 the European Union marks the 50th anniversary of another treaty—the Treaty of Rome, its founding charter.”. 4. FALSE Explanation

 See the third sentence in Section D“But it does not take a Machiavelli to spot that once governments have signed the declaration (and it seems unlikely anyone would be so uncollegiate as to veto it) they will already be halfway towards committing themselves to a new treaty”. 5. NOT GIVEN Explanation See the first sentence in Section E “According to the German government—which holds the EU’s agenda-setting presidency during the first half of 2007”. 6. TRUE Explanation See the third sentence in Section H“The British government, for one, will almost certainly not want to go with the flow, beginning yet another chapter in the long history of confrontation between Britain and the rest of Europe”. 7. further integration Explanation See the second sentence in Section C“Every four or five years, European countries take a large stride towards further integration by signing a new treaty”. 8. lay the ground Explanation See the third sentence in Section C “And in 2005 they were supposed to ratify a European constitution, laying the ground for yet more integration—until the calm rhythm was rudely shattered by French and Dutch voters.”. 9. publc rejection Explanation

 See the third sentence in Section E“Then, according to bureaucratic planners in Brussels and Berlin, blithely ignoring the possibility of public rejection, the whole thing will be signed, sealed and a new constitution delivered in 2009--10.” 10. bureaucratc momentum Explanation See the frst sentence in Section H “The upshot is that the politics of the three large continental countries, bureaucratic momentum and the economics of recovery will all be aligned to give a push towards integration in 2007.”. 11. C Explanation See the last sentence in Section B “Since politics often reacts to economic change with a lag, 2006’s improvement in economic growth will have its impact in 2007, though the recovery may be ebbing by then”. 12. A Explanation See the last sentence in Section C “But the political impetus to sign something every four or five years has only been interrupted, not immobilised, by this setback.” 13 . D Explanation See the first sentence in Section D “In 2007 the European Union marks the 50th anniversary of another treaty—the Treaty of Rome, its founding charter.” 14 .B Explanation

 See third sentence in Section C: “And in 2005 they were supposed to ratify a European constitution, laying the ground for yet more integration—until the calm rhythm was rudely shattered by French and Dutch voters.”

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